Stephen Collie Enterprises New Zealand

Properly storing CBD products and other hemp oil supplements is key to preserving their freshness and making sure the cannabinoids don’t degrade or break down prematurely. You want to be able to get the maximum benefits from these products, and by observing the best practice when it comes to storing them, you don’t only extend their shelf life, you also preserve their potency.

There are three things hemp oil supplements don’t get along well with heat, light, and oxygen. So to make sure your CBD products are not compromised, always keep them in a place where these elements are well controlled. Here are a few things you need to remember when it comes to storing CBD products:

Store CBD products in a cool place

Prolonged exposure to heat will definitely ruin your stash of hemp oil supplements and other CBD products. If you’re looking for a place to store them, make sure it’s never near appliances that produce heat like an oven, dryer, heater, or even the refrigerator. CBD oil does not have to be refrigerated, however, if you live in a hot, humid place it is a good idea to store it inside the fridge. The low temperature inside the fridge might thicken your CBD oil, so if this happens, just place the bottle under warm water and it should be ready for consumption in a few minutes.

Another thing to avoid is leaving your CBD products in the car. It could get really hot in there, and this condition could cause the cannabinoids to degrade and lose some of its therapeutic properties.

CBD Products

Keep CBD products out of direct sunlight

Like other similar neutraceuticals, CBD products and other hemp oil supplements could lose their efficacy when exposed to direct sunlight. Always keep them in their original bottles, which are usually opaque, as they’re designed to protect contents from light damage. Store in a dark cool place, away from open windows.

Along these same lines, be sure when buying CBD oil to look out for products which are sold in clear bottles or containers. The packaging may look beautiful, but being in a clear bottle means its cannabinoid content will degrade more quickly due to the extra light exposure.

Who remembers this old Sam Adams commercial? What they talk about here is exactly what happens to cannabidiol products…

Keep CBD products sealed in air-tight containers

Oxygen can also contribute to the breakdown of natural cannabinoids, and could leave your precious CBD products less effective. This is why they usually come in air-tight containers that are specifically designed to keep the contents protected from air exposure. When storing CBD oil, make it a habit to double check if the lid or cap is properly and tightly closed after each use, to make sure air doesn’t seep in. Also, be sure to only buy CBD oil which comes in a completely sealed container. If the seal is broken, ask for a new one.

How Long Does CBD Last Once Open?

After you’ve opened your CBD oil, you may be wondering what just happened to the shelf life. We analyzed CBD products from several major brands and found that most have an expiration date of one or two years, if refrigerated. Outside of the refrigerator, you can still expect a year shelf life if stored away from light, heat, and humidity.

How to tell if CBD Oil Has Gone Bad

Typically, a CBD supplement gets used far before it nears the end of its shelf life. However, it’s always good to know the signs of an expired hemp product.

If you’re new to CBD oil, take a moment to smell your product the first time you open it. In general, hemp oil has an aromatic and herbal smell. However, there are endless formulations out there that can affect the scent. Depending on the product, it could smell like olive oil, mint leaves, or any number of essential oils that may be used.

But once hemp oil goes bad, it’s bad. The once pleasant aroma turns unmistakeably rancid.

Final Thoughts

CBD products and other hemp oil supplements usually last a year, if properly stored. Proper storage can definitely prevent degradation of cannabinoids and make sure you get the most out of them. However, you also have to consider other factors, like the method of preparation, ingredients used, and the actual finished product. CBD and hemp extracts typically have carrier oils, for example, and the shelf life of the product can be influenced by these base oils. In these cases, it’s best that you store them the way you would store their base oils, the most common being olive oil, MCT oil, and coconut oil.

If you choose to cook or bake with your hemp oil supplements, these can also contain perishable ingredients. These would expire more quickly, than say, capsules and oils, and would have the same storage requirements as their non-CBD versions.


This article was originally published on MadeByHemp.com

Featured Image: MadeByHemp

The staggering cost of higher education in the United States has many prospective college students wondering whether going to college is worth the expense. While conventional wisdom still points to the benefits of having a college degree, more students and their families are seeking alternatives to lower their college tuition bills. Some Americans are even looking abroad, as some countries offer free tuition to international students and programs of study entirely in English.

1. Norway

Students willing to brave exceptionally harsh winters and one of the highest costs of living in the world might consider earning their degrees in Norway. Tuition is free at public universities, giving students the opportunity to earn degrees at top-ranked institutions such as the University of Oslo, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and the University of Bergen.

2. Finland

Until recently, citizens and international students paid no tuition at state-run universities. However, starting in 2017, international students wishing to earn degrees in English will pay approximately $1,700 or more per year, depending on the degree level and program of study. Doctoral students, as well as those pursuing their studies in Finnish or Swedish, still pay no tuition. The government also plans to offer scholarships and financial aid to international students with exceptional academic backgrounds.

3. Sweden

Only students pursuing research-based doctoral degrees get free tuition in Sweden; some programs of study even offer stipends to international students. Nevertheless, students should be aware that Sweden’s high cost of living may put them over budget, even when they pay nothing to earn their degrees.

4. Germany

Germany needs skilled workers, and this reality creates a win-win situation for American students. All students enrolled in any of the country’s public universities can attend for free. What’s more, German universities offer a wide range of programs entirely in English, and an American student can earn a university degree in Germany without speaking a word of German. Top-ranked institutions, such as the University of Munich and University of Bonn, mean that U.S. students don’t have to trade prestige for cost.

5. Slovenia

Cultural experiences, proximity to tourist destinations in Italy and Croatia, and free university tuition make Slovenia an attractive choice for students wanting to earn their degrees abroad. Like Germany, Slovenian universities offer numerous programs of study in English, so students only need to learn the language to communicate with the locals.

6. France

In the past, students needed to speak French in order to attend university in France. This is no longer the case, however, as many programs of study at both public and private universities are offered in English. Students who attend public universities usually pay a few hundred dollars per year, depending on the degree level and program of study. Over the years, France has modified its free tuition model, and some EU students pay tuition based on family income. Such changes may eventually impact how much international students pay to attend French universities.

College TuitionImage Credits: Pixabay

Beyond Europe

Europe remains a well-known, highly sought-after destination for students seeking refuge from high-priced U.S. colleges and universities, but public universities in countries such as Mexico and Brazil also have virtually free tuition; students pay registration fees, which amount to very little when considering the exchange rates. Some universities offer top-quality programs of study in English. Earning a degree south of the border also makes it possible for students to learn highly sought-after languages of commerce, such as Spanish and Portuguese.

Americans can also attend university in China and pay around $3,000 per year, which is very affordable when compared to U.S. tuition rates. The best tuition deals in China, however, are reserved for students able to pursue their studies in Chinese.


This article by Lisa Goetz was previously published on Investopedia.com

About the Author:

  • Finance content writer for Investopedia since 2016
  • Has more than 60 articles to her credit
  • Writes about insurance, real estate, budgets and credit, and banking and taxes

Experience

Lisa has been a finance content writer for Investopedia since 2016, and she has more than 60 articles to her credit. She writes about a wide array of topics including articles on insurance, real estate, budgets and credit, and banking and taxes. Lisa also writes about buying a franchise, career advice, and how loans affect credit scores.

In one of her recent articles, The Cost of Buying a McDonald’s Franchise (MCD), Lisa looks into the difference between buying an existing franchise and purchasing a new franchise. She points out information about market saturation, the problems associated with the training new staff, and the availability of financing for the franchise purchase.

You will also see Lisa’s work in syndication at Yahoo, as a referenced work in the book The Green Bundle: Paring the Market with the Planet, and as reposts on several business and financial education websites.


Featured Image Credits: Pixabay

Learn More

 

 

Introduction to Cryptography

There’s nothing you can know that isn’t known.
Nothing you can see that isn’t shown.
All you need is…PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY!!!

– with apologies to Lennon-McCartney

French Cipher Machine

Without public key cryptography, cryptocurrency fails. Public key cryptography proves ownership and enforces privacy. It arrived relatively recently, though, appearing on the scene in the mid-1970’s at the same time as the personal computer revolution.

The art and science of cryptography encode (i.e., encrypt) messages so that no one can read them except the intended audience. Only the proper recipient decodes (i.e., decrypts) the message, maintaining privacy between communicators.

A key is used to encrypt and decrypt messages. In asymmetric cryptography (another name for public key cryptography), the key to encrypt a message is different from the key to decrypt the message.

In symmetric encryption, the key to decrypt a message is the same as the key used to encrypt it. This strategy creates a key distribution problem: the sender not only has to send the message but also find a secure way to send the key as well. When a villain intercepts the key and the message both, privacy disintegrates.

Whitfield-Diffie Key Distribution Solution

Linguistics, language, and puzzle skills ruled cryptography through most of history, but from the mid-twentieth century onward, math has been predominant.

In the 1970’s at Stanford University, Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman, and Ralph Merkle found a mathematical solution to the key distribution problem. In their solution, they used modular arithmetic and one-way functions. (Among other accomplishments, Ralph Merkle also contributed greatly to cryptocurrency as the inventor of Merkle trees.)

Modular arithmetic deals with remainders and incorporates a set of numbers that wrap around to the beginning after a certain point. That is, 7 mod 3 equals 1 because 1 is what remains after dividing 3 into 7. A 12-hour clock provides the most common example of the wrap-around nature of modular arithmetic. If it’s 8:00 a.m. now, 6 hours from now will not be 14:00 o’clock but 2:00 p.m. The main point to remember is that modular arithmetic behaves non-intuitively and yields unexpected results.

In mathematics, one-way functions execute easily but strongly resist reverse engineering. Think of a bowl of soup served in a restaurant. The cook easily followed the recipe to create it, perhaps even improvising some ingredients at hand. You may well be able to detect this flavor and the spices, but without the recipe and exact ingredients the chef used, you’ll have a difficult time duplicating that bowl of soup.

In the Whitfield-Diffie algorithm, correspondents share some public information for the key but keep private information that prevents an eavesdropper from reproducing that key. The team presented their solution publicly in June 1976 at the National Computer Conference.

Enter Asymmetric Cryptography

Whitfield-Diffie solves the key distribution problem but still uses symmetric encryption.

Upon learning of the Whitfield-Diffie solution, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adelman at the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science began building on those mathematical concepts to discover a solution for asymmetric encryption. In April 1977, they succeeded. This became known as RSA after the names of the creators.

In asymmetric encryption, you publish a public key that everyone knows. People use this to encrypt messages that only you can decrypt because you know the private key. Simply put, a public key is just a number created by multiplying two numbers of the private key. If the numbers used are sufficiently large, discovering those two numbers is computationally intensive and time-consuming.

Encryption for the Rest of Us

Patent Application for Electric Code Machine

Using RSA encryption challenged the resources of the computers in those days. Encryption belonged only to the powerful and wealthy — the military, governments, large corporations, etc. Paul Zimmerman envisioned encryption available to anyone with a personal computer. He implemented Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and released it to the public for free in June 1991.

Zimmerman overcame the resource intensive computational slowness of asymmetric encryption by implementing a hybrid algorithm. The message itself used a symmetric key, and asymmetric cryptography encrypted the key to safely send it with the message.

 

Hello, Hal Finney

Secret Decoder RingThe first employee Phil Zimmerman hired at PGP was Hal Finney. Hal Finney would become the first person to show any interest when an unknown person calling himself Satoshi Nakamoto arrived on the scene in 2008 proposing something he called Bitcoin.

Multiple attempts to create private digital money protected by asymmetric encryption failed throughout the 1990’s. In Amsterdam, David Chaum created DigiCash but required all transactions to be validated by a centralized company. DigiCash failed when Chaum’s company went bankrupt in 1998. British researcher Adam Back created HashCash in 1997 utilizing a Proof of Work method to create new coins. HashCash failed because a coin could only be used once. Users needed to create new coins every time they wanted to purchase something.

Hal Finney solved the HashCash problem by making the first reusable proof of work system (RPOW). He made his attempt at a digital money project with something he called CRASH (for Crypto cASH). (Lesson learned: call a computer program CRASH and expect it to fail.)

Hello, Bitcoin

Hal Finney became the first person after Satoshi to run a Bitcoin node and was the first recipient of Bitcoin from the first transaction on the network.

Hal encouraged Satoshi with the wisdom of a seasoned pro who has not grown jaded with cynicism: “Imagine that Bitcoin is successful and becomes the dominant payment system in use throughout the world. Then the total value of the currency should be equal to the total value of all the wealth in the world…Even if the odds of Bitcoin succeeding to this degree are slim, are they really 100 million to one against? Something to think about.”

Later on, Hal Finney contracted the fatal disease of ALS and posted some parting words to the community on March 19, 2013:

“After a few days, bitcoin was running pretty stably, so I left it running. Those were the days when difficulty was 1, and you could find blocks with a CPU, not even a GPU. I mined several blocks over the next days. But I turned it off because it made my computer run hot, and the fan noise bothered me…The next I heard of Bitcoin was late 2010, when I was surprised to find that it was not only still going, bitcoins actually had monetary value. I dusted off my old wallet, and was relieved to discover that my bitcoins were still there. As the price climbed up to real money, I transferred the coins into an offline wallet, where hopefully they’ll be worth something to my heirs.”

Final Thoughts and Further Reading

The history of cryptography from Whitfield-Diffie to Bitcoin and beyond continues to progress. Math provides the foundation. Modern math unlocks possibilities unheard of before the middle of the twentieth century. Mathematical research continues, and when quantum computing becomes common, new mathematical possibilities will emerge.

Beyond math, decentralization drives the history of modern cryptography. Everyone deserves privacy. When Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman created public key cryptography, only powerful and centralized organizations benefitted immediately. Phil Zimmerman’s Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer. With Bitcoin, anyone who uses the cryptocurrency gets the privacy of public key cryptography as an integral component of the system.

Further Reading

Many sources provide further in-depth information on the history of cryptography and its emergence in cryptocurrency:

A popular book on the history of cryptography is Simon Singh’s The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography.

The early chapters of Nathaniel Popper’s Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money cover the early history of cryptocurrency.

Archives, articles, and a wealth of primary material can be found here.


This article by Wilton Thornburg was previously published on Coincentral.com

About the Author:

Wilton Thornburg is a software engineer, currently based in the greater Boston area.

 

  • Ruby on Rails Tutorial Learn Web Development with Rails 3rd Edition Addison Wesley Professional Ruby
  • Ruby on Rails Tutorial Learn Web Development with Rails 3rd Edition Addison Wesley Professional Ruby
  • Ruby on Rails Tutorial Learn Web Development with Rails 3rd Edition Addison Wesley Professional Ruby
  • Ruby on Rails Tutorial Learn Web Development with Rails 4th Edition Addison Wesley Professional Rub
  • Ruby on Rails Tutorial: Learn Web Development with Rails 3rd Edition: An Introduction
  • 5 Best Books on Ruby on Rails
  • The Top 10 Ruby Books In 2017
  • The Ruby on Rails Cognitive Biases
  • Databases & Rails: Wk4 URLS
  • RubyConf 2014 – Ruby Changed My Life
«
»
Rating: 
Amazon Price: $31.19 (as of January 15, 2020 9:02 am – Details). Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on the Amazon site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.

This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, website access codes, or print supplements that may come packaged with the bound book.

Used by sites as varied as Twitter, GitHub, Disney, and Airbnb, Ruby on Rails is one of the most popular frameworks for developing web applications, but it can be challenging to learn and use. Whether you’re new to web development or new only to Rails, Ruby on Rails™ Tutorial, Fourth Edition, is the solution.

Continue Reading…

  • GIS Tutorial 1 for ArcGIS Pro A Platform Workbook GIS Tutorials
  • Tutorial 1 – 2: Navigate ArcGIS Pro
  • How to use the spatial join tool in ArcGIS Pro.
  • GIS Tutorial 1 Assignment 4-1 for version 10.1
  • GIS Tutorial 1 Basic Workbook 10th tenth edition Text Only
  • Arcgis pro tutorial | Getting started with Arcgis pro
  • Tutorial 2 – 1: Creating point and polygon maps using qualitative attributes
  • GIS Modeling in Raster
  • Installing ArcGIS
  • GIS Tutorial-1: Assignment 3-1 (Ver 9.3)
«
»
Rating: 
Amazon Price: $58.89 (as of January 15, 2020 7:31 am – Details). Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on the Amazon site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.

GIS Tutorial 1 for ArcGIS® Pro: A Platform Workbook is an introductory text for learning ArcGIS Pro, the premier professional desktop GIS application. In-depth exercises that use ArcGIS Pro, ArcGIS Online, and other ArcGIS apps feature the latest GIS technology to show readers how to make maps, how to create and analyze spatial data, and how to manage systems with GIS.

Incorporating proven teaching methods in detailed exercises, “Your Turn” sections, and expanded homework assignments, this book is suited to learning GIS in a classroom. Wilpen L. Gorr and Kristen S. Kurland have written the top-selling GIS Tutorial 1: Basic Workbook, GIS Tutorial for Health, and GIS Tutorial for Crime Analysis. Resources for instructors are also available upon request.

Note: Esri Press e-books do not include 180-day trial software. Instead, you can download the ArcGIS Trial at http://www.esri.com/arcgis/trial.

GIS Tutorial 1 for ArcGIS Pro: A Platform Workbook (GIS Tutorials)

You may also like, Tutorial 1:

Basic Workbook is a top-selling introductory text for learning ArcGIS 10.3.x for Desktop. The workbook presents GIS tools and functionality, including querying interactive maps, collecting data, and running geoprocessing tools. Incorporating proven teaching methods in detailed exercises, “Your Turn” sections, and homework assignments, this book is suited to learning GIS in a classroom.

That edition includes a new chapter about analyzing street network data to solve routing and facility location problems using ArcGIS Network Analyst. Data for completing the exercises is available for download at esripress.esri.com/bookresources. Instructor resources are also available.

  • GIS Tutorial 1 Basic Workbook, 10 1 Edition GIS Tutorials
  • GIS Tutorial 1 Workbook: Tutorial 1-1
  • GIS Tutorial 1 Assignment 4-1 for version 10.1
  • GIS Tutorial 1 Assignment 1-2 Part 1
  • Map composition with ArcGIS Amharic tutorial
  • ArcGIS for beginners
  • gis amharic part 1
  • ArcMap GIS Tutorial 02-08
  • ArcMap GIS Tutorial 06-02
  • ArcMap GIS Tutorial 04-03
«
»
Rating: 
Amazon Price: $22.41 (as of January 15, 2020 8:25 am – Details). Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on the Amazon site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.

GIS Tutorial 1: Basic Workbook is a top-selling introductory text for learning ArcGIS 10.3.x for Desktop. The workbook presents GIS tools and functionality, including querying interactive maps, collecting data, and running geoprocessing tools. Incorporating proven teaching methods in detailed exercises, “Your Turn” sections, and homework assignments, this book is suited to learning GIS in a classroom.

The latest edition includes a new chapter about analyzing street network data to solve routing and facility location problems using ArcGIS Network Analyst. Data for completing the exercises is available for download at esripress.esri.com/bookresources. Instructor resources are also available.

Note: Esri Press e-books do not include 180-day trial software. Instead, you can download the ArcGIS Trial at http://www.esri.com/arcgis/trial.

You may also like: Tutorial 1for ArcGIS Pro – A Platform Workbook

Buy Direct on Amazon

Company Info

This website is a project by:

TNZ Web Solutions

TNZ Web Solutions is part of ZedBee Limited
NZ Companies registration nr. 5397562 (records)

Menu

Contact

3/12 Cypress Street
Tauranga 3110, New Zealand

Email

© 2018 Stephen Collie Enterprises